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  • 中国台湾 —— 果东法师

     

      诸山长老、居士大德,阿弥陀佛。能够参与胜会,与诸位善知识大德在汉传佛教重要的历史现场——西安,共同探讨汉传佛教祖庭文化的传承与未来发展,个人深感荣幸。

      Virtuous Dharma masters and spiritual friends,

      It is a great honor to participate in this wonderful seminar with all of you here today in this significant place of origin for Chinese Buddhism, Xi’an, to explore the legacy of ancestral monasticism in Chinese Buddhism and its future development.

      佛教于公元一世纪(东汉明帝)传入中国,经数百年酝酿,于公元六、七世纪的隋、唐时代,进入成熟期,开创所谓大乘八宗的局面(天台、三论、净土、四分律、法相、华严、禅、密),迄今仍使我们震撼。其中除了三论宗及禅宗以外,其余六宗祖庭皆在西安。

      Buddhism spread to China in the first century B.C.E. (during the time of Emperor Ming of the Eastern Han dynasty). In the course of several centuries, it entered its mature period during the Sui and Tang dynasties, when the eight schools in Mahayana Buddhism—Tiantai, Sanlun (Three Treatises), Pure Land, Four-Part Vinaya, Dharma-Character, Huayan, Chan, and Esoteric—had developed and blossomed, which to this date still maintain their remarkable impacts. Except for the Sanlun and Chan schools, the ancestral monasteries of the other six schools are all located in Xi’an.

      西安(古称长安)也是西汉时期丝绸之路的起点,居东方世界商业与文化中心,乃是当时首屈一指的国际大都会。在丝路留下的历史身影,多为商人、使节和僧侣,如佛教著名的三藏法师鸠摩罗什(344——413年)来华弘法,法显(338——423年)及玄奘大师(602——664年)赴印度取经,走的都是丝路。义净大师(635——713年)则从西安出发,通过海上丝路,前往印度追寻法源。

      Xi’an, or Chang’an as it was known in ancient times, is the starting point of the Silk Road that was formally established in Western Han dynasty. A commercial and cultural hub in the East, Xian was an international metropolitan of the time. Many traders, diplomats, and Buddhist monks in the history had left their footprints on the Silk Road, including the eminent Tripitaka Master Kumarajiva (344-413), who travelled to China to spread the Dharma and helped translate many Buddhist texts, Master Faxian (338-423) and Master Xuanzang (602-664), who traveled to India to acquire Buddhist scriptures. Master Yijing (635-713), on the other hand, started his pilgrimage to India from Xi’an via the Maritime Silk Route, in search of the origin of the Buddha’s teachings.

      从佛教传播的历程来看,其实南传、汉传及藏传三系,均曾传入汉地,却唯有汉传佛教于中国立足生根。这是因为汉文化的儒道背景,使得南传与藏传佛教,较难于汉地生根。而于印度初期及中期发展的大乘佛教,因以菩萨道为本,故传入中国之后,不仅未受排斥,反而与汉地既有的儒道二家,互为因缘,共同成长。在互动过程中,佛教丰富了中国文化,中国文化则促成了佛教的转型,可说是非常成功的国际文化交流。

      In terms of the process of the propagation of Buddhism, Theravada Buddhism, Chinese Buddhism, and Tibetan Buddhism all made their way to China, but only Chinese Buddhism eventually took root in China, thanks to the context of Confucianism and Daoism inherited in the Han Chinese culture, which is not suitable for Theravada and Tibetan Buddhism to become localized. Mahayana Buddhism, which developed during the early and mid-period of Indian Buddhism, is based on the philosophy of the bodhisattva path, and therefore could coexist and develop mutually with Confucianism and Daoism, native to Han Chinese culture. Over the course of this interaction, Buddhism has enriched Chinese culture while Chinese culture has facilitated the transformation of Buddhism, which constitutes a successful example of international cultural exchange.

      依据恩师法鼓山创办人圣严师父的看法,汉传佛教具有包容性、消融性、普及性、适应性、人间性等特质。正由于广大的包容性、持久的普及性和高度的适应性,因而适应中国文化,并且普及、回馈于汉地文化;又因包容性及适应性,故在多元文化、多元宗教、多元族群的现代社会,同样也被敞纳接受,又予以消化融合,成为人间性的共同文化。

      According to my teacher and DDM (Dharma Drum Mountain)founder, Master Sheng Yen, the characteristics of Chinese Buddhism are inclusiveness, the ability to assimilate, universal relevance, adaptability, and humanism. Broadly inclusive, universally relevant over time, and highly adaptable, Chinese Buddhism was thus well-suited to Chinese culture, spread widely, and received much in return. Chinese Buddhism has also found wide acceptance in our modern society with its cultural, religious, and ethnic diversity. The Chinese Buddhist teachings have become integrated into the social fabric and a culture shared by all of humanity.

      过去二十多年来,恩师与法鼓山四众弟子,持续实践并推动汉传佛教的精华,我们把这项工作称为「心灵环保」。其内涵,并非局限于宗教的信仰,而是净化人心、净化社会的价值观及实施方法。从定义来讲,心灵环保即是以观念的导正,来提升人的素质,让我们面对外在环境的变动和冲击时,内心能够不受影响,还能够以健康的心态,来面对现实,处理问题。

      For over 20 years, Master Sheng Yen and the DDM sangha have spared no effort to promote the essential teachings of Chinese Chan Buddhism, an undertaking that we call “Protecting the Spiritual Environment.” Not limited to religious belief, his teachings also reflect the humanistic values of a purified mind, along with the methods to put them into practice. By definition, protecting the spiritual environment means transforming human concepts to uplift human character so that the mind will not be affected by the external environment when confronted with changes and challenges. We can therefore face reality and handle problems with a healthy attitude.

      谈到群己关系、及与环境的互动,恩师则倡议求同存异的「全球伦理」:便是接受个别的差异性,彼此互信、互敬、互谅、互助。并有两句话:「放下了人我是非,宇宙万物,原是没有区隔的整体;消灭了敌我意识,一切众生,无非彼此扶持的伴侣。」强调家庭、职场、族群,乃至社会、国家及自然环境,全都是互依、互补的生命共同体。

      Regarding interpersonal relationships and our interaction with the environment, Master Sheng Yen advocated the global ethics based on the idea of seeking commonality within difference. It requires us to accept individual differences, as well as mutual trust, mutual respect, mutual consideration, and mutual assistance. He once said, “By letting go of the concept of self and the view of right and wrong, we will perceive all phenomena in the universe as a unity without separation and segregation. By eliminating the idea of rivalry, we will see all sentient beings as companions that support and sustain each other.” As he stressed, families, workplaces, ethnic groups, societies, nations, and natural environments all represent shared entities of lives in which all beings actually depend on and complement each other.

      往未来看,一个整体性的世界佛教将是时势所趋,那就需要各传承体系携手,将释迦牟尼佛整体的教理与教义进行整合。而现在我们要做的,一个是回溯原典,掌握佛法的缘起法则,并且深入各自传承的教法,将自己的优点奉献给整体佛教。此外,尚须建立远见、宏观,厘清历史源流及历史开合的现象,共同思考二十一世纪人类所关切的问题,以逐渐形成世界佛教的趋势。

      Looking at the future of Buddhism, we can see that a form of world Buddhism as a whole will be the trend. It will require various Buddhist lineages and traditions to work together, to bring together the principles and doctrines as taught by Shakyamuni Buddha. What we need to do now is to refer to the original Buddhist texts and grasp the Buddhist philosophy of dependent origination, while delving into the teachings of our own respective traditions and contributing our strengths to Buddhism as a whole. In addition, we should establish a vision and a broader perspective, clarifying the historical context and connection, and jointly addressing the issues of common concern of humanity for the 21st century, thereby helping the formation of a trend for global Buddhism.

      总结法鼓山团体实践及推广汉传佛教的作为,可藉中华佛研所所训作为说明,共有八句话:「立足中华,放眼世界。专精佛学,护持正法。解行互资,悲智双运。实用为先,利他为重。」敬请诸位善知识大德指教。

      To sum up the actions by our Dharma Drum Mountain organization in practicing and promoting Chinese Buddhism, I would like to use the school motto of Chung-Hwa Institute of Buddhist Studies as an illustration. It contains four sentences, as follows:

      “Our roots are Chinese, our branches are global.

      Our specialty is Buddhist Studies, and our aim to uphold orthodox Buddhism.

      We combine understanding with practice, and join compassion with wisdom.

      Practicality is our priority, and benefiting others is our emphasis.”

      I hope this can be of any inspiration.

      最后,以「信愿行十力」与大家共勉:「尽心尽力,随缘努力。转化压力,成为助力。开发潜力,保持毅力。凝聚向心力,展现生命力。有愿就有力,彼此共勉力。」祝福大会圆满成功,阿弥陀佛。

      Towards the end, I would like to share my personal adage, the “Ten Kinds of Power”, with you:

      The power to devote all you can.

      The power to try your best according to causes and conditions.

      The power to turn pressure into the power to assist you.

      The power to explore your potential and the power to remain persistent.

      The power to facilitate solidarity and the power to demonstrate vitality.

      When there are compassionate wishes and vows, there is power.

      Let us help each other and join our powers together.

      Finally, I wish the seminar a success. Thank you. Amituofo!

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