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  • [美]强梵暢:從量子物理解讀科学禅修(Interpretation of the Scientific Chan Mediation with Quantum Physics)

     

      报告人 强梵暢

      By Victor Chiang / Master Q

      国际科学禅中心创办人兼董事长

      The Universal Scientific Chanist Meditation System CEO & President

      国际汉传佛教学会创办人兼名誉会长

      International Chinese Buddhist Association Founder & Honorary President

     

      论文摘要Abstract

      本論文是主要利用物理學上的兩個主要理論,即「粒子學說」與「波頻學說」,來解釋已有千年以上歷史的「禪修理論」。

      This paper uses two major theories of the quantum physics: particle theory and wave theory to explain the “Chan Meditation theory” that has been used for couple thousand years in China.

      一個禪修中的參禪狀態,可以從這些理論中,得到合理而科學的詮釋。波爾的電子學說,或量子學說,也就是粒子的理論,在禪修中就是最重要的“話頭”,每一次“話頭”在腦海中的起伏狀態,就是上述所說“粒子”的運作。許多思緒的產生,集中成粒子团,也就是在禪修中,“制心一處”的狀態,成為一個“定態”。而根據波恩的概率論,可以建立一套“參禪定律”。利用量子物理中的“微粒說”,及“波動說”,把禪修中利用“棒喝”法門,使禪行人容易“破參”的过程用科學的语言描述出来。我们提出的四个科学性的特点如下:

      All states in “Chan Meditation” can be interpreted with quantum physics. Neils Bohr’s explanation of electrons resemble “Hua Tou”, the most vital element in “Chan Meditation”.  Electrons’ properties and interactions represent the nature of “Hua Tou” in meditation. Like cloud of particles gathers, the “"Hua Tou"" can grow to be a “Cloud of Hua Tou”. Max Born’s probability theory helps establish “Chan Meditation theory”. It becomes apparent how “Beating & Shouting” helps “breakthrough” in the language of “particle theory” and “wave theory”. The Chan method can be part of the empirical science and we summarized the following four points.

      (一) “話頭”即是“粒子”態

      (二) “棒喝”,即是“聲波”態

      (三) 能量即是“轉換”態

      (四) 破参即是“共振”态

      (1) "Hua Tou" is a "particle"

      (2) "Beating & Shouting" generates sonic power

      (3) Energy is transformative

      (4)"Breakthrough" could be referred to as resonate state

      基于实际的禅修,用科学理论来描述禅修的科学性,给当今佛教研究开启一个新的途径。

      The focus of this article is based on the actual Chan Meditation, to describe the science of Chan Meditation with scientific theories. Hopefully, this article could find a new pathway of modern Buddhism study.

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      论文本文Content

      愛因斯坦於1930年11月9日在紐約時報雜誌發表他的著名文章“論科學與宗教”中說:「沒有宗教的科學是跛足的,沒有科學的宗教是盲目的。」

      On November 9, 1930 Einstein published his famous article in the New York Times Magazine "Science and Religion," which stated that "Science without religion is lame, religion without science is blind.

      第四屆世界佛教論壇的主題為“同願同行,交流互鑑”,是要繼續彰顯佛教思想的內涵及當代價值。在當今,這個混亂的世界中,這個主題的提出,有其特殊的意義,這裏面牽涉幾個重要的宗旨

      The theme for the Fourth World Buddhist Forum is to exchange ideas and learn with peers in order to demonstrate the connotation and contemporary value of Buddhism.  In today’s chaotic world, this topic has its own special meaning, which involves several important purposes.

      第一: 佛教的定位問題:世界宗教界如此混亂,二十世紀許多新興宗教的興起,產生對傳統宗教的衝擊,身為世界第三大宗教的佛教,是否能在新的挑戰中,確立佛教的地位?影響力?

      First: the position of Buddhism. The religious world is very chaotic due to the rise of many new religions in the twentieth century. This has impacted traditional religions such as Buddhism, the world’s third largest religion. Are we able to continue to establish the status and influence of Buddhism with these new challenges?

      第二、佛教思想現代化的問題:當代思想澎湃發展,許多新的思潮幾乎是違背了傳統中西文化的界限,傳統與新潮面臨衝擊或整合的問題,佛教的思想急需現代化,用現代的方式,語言去詮釋佛教甚深的人生哲理,與宇宙現象。

      Second: the modernizing Buddhist thoughts. Emerging contemporary thoughts are contrary to the traditional ideologies of Chinese and Western cultures. In order to make an impact within these current parameters, the profound Buddhism philosophy of life and universe should be approached with modernized ways.

      第三、佛教的當代價值問題:在二十世紀科學技術的衝擊下,國際互聯網的流通,資訊的發達,每個人都很容易,受到世界各種思想,理論的影響,整個世界的價值觀,被根本顛覆;佛教能起什麼作用?他能作為傳統文化的捍衛者嗎?

      Third: the value of Buddhism in the modern society. In the twentieth century, under the impact of science and technology, everyone can easily access information; society’s various mentalities and theories are fundamentally subversive. What role can Buddhism play? Can Buddhism act as a defender of traditional culture?

      佛教本身就含有科學精神性質的,就是主張實踐主義的;所以,我們應該用現代科學的技術及語言,來重新檢視一下,佛教的內涵,及其對當代社會的價值。

      Buddhism has a scientific spirit in nature. It advocates practice. Thus, we should use modern scientific techniques and languages to re-examine the connotations of Buddhism and its value in contemporary society.

      禪法是可以實證的科學,本文可以利用物理學上的兩個派系的理論,「粒子學說」與「波動學說」來描述已有千年以上歷史的「禪修理論」。

      The Chan method can be part of the empirical science.  This paper employs two physics theories: "particle theory" and "wave theory" to explain the “Chan Meditation theory”, which has a history of over a thousand years.

      當代是科學的世紀,由於科技文明的發達,整個世界的各行各業等,甚至人史文哲宗科,各門學術理論,均必得經過科學的考驗及證實,提昇及洗禮。宗教不例外,禪宗更不例外。

      Today’s society is defined by science and technology with definite and tangible results. History, humanity, culture, philosophy, religion and all academic theories must be scientifically tested and confirmed in order to be accepted by the public. Religion is no exception; “Chan” sect is no exception.

      所以,現代許多科學家及醫學家,正開始用科學的眼光及技術,醫學的檢驗及科技來關注,這二千多年的「禪修」到底對於人有甚麼功能?意義?價值?過去各門各派的禪修方式,放在科學的放大鏡下,必須經得起現代科學的驗證,才能令人信服。

      Thus, many modern scientists and medical experts have begun to use modern scientific and medical methods and technologies to exam the function, meaning, and value of the “Chan mediation”. Each and every form of “Chan Meditation” that was once accepted in the past, must withstand modern scientific validation in order to thrive.

      近期我正在編寫《量子物理與科學禪修》一書,我想舉出一些量子物理的論點,來實際解释「科學禪修」的科學性質,尤其是禪宗臨濟宗的棒喝法門。

      I was recently in the process of writing a book called "Quantum Physics and Science of Meditation". I would like to cite some of the arguments of quantum physics, to scientifically explain the "ideas of the Chan Meditation"; particularly the “Beating & Shouting” method in the LinJi sect of Chinese “Chan” sect.

      (一)“話頭”即是“粒子”態

      (1) "Hua Tou" is a "particle"

      在禪門臨濟宗的法門中,主要是以“參”“公案”或“話頭”為主要手段。藉由參話頭的練習,去達到排除妄念,意至集中,甚至“心一境性”的目標。,這個過程包括幾個程序,即「妄念→話頭→疑團→成片。」

      The method of the “Chan”  LinJi sect is based on the contemplate "kona" (case study) or “Hua Tou” for its primary method. Through “Hua Tou", one can concentrate on a single thought eventually. This process consists of several stages, namely “Wandering Thoughts” → "Hua Tou"" → “Cloud of Hua Tou”→ “Holding Hua Tou Firmly”.

      所以,從物理學的角度來解讀,每一個“話頭”,就好比是物理學中的“粒子”。德裔物理學家普朗克(Max Carl Ernst Ludwig Planck),在1900年把這些基本單位稱作“能量子”(Energy Element),後改稱“量子”( Elementary Quantum)。這個“量子”就是能量的最小單位,一切能量的傳輸,都只能從這個“量”為單位來進行。

      To interpret this from physics point of view, each “Hua Tou” resembles a physical "particle."  In 1900, German physicist Max Carl Ernst Ludwig Planck, named these basic units "energy quanta" (Energy Element). It was later renamed the "quantum" (Elementary Quantum); the "quantum" is the smallest unit of energy. All energy can only be carried out with some units of “quantum".

      在禪宗的修行過程中,我們假定每一個“念頭”,都是一個獨立的“單元”,當每起一個“念頭”的時候,也就是產生一個物理學上的“粒子”或“量子”的時候。

      During the process of the “Chan Meditation”, we assume that each “thought” is an independent “unit”. Each “thought” represent a particle.

      當我們“妄念紛飛”“層出不窮”的時候,也就是這些“量子”的自然狀態。參禪時候,在眾多的“念頭”中,必須選定一個,作為“本參”的目標,這是參禪的主要目標,也是我們要打破 的 “話頭”。

      Often times, our endless thoughts are wandering around. We must select one from the many as the “Selected Hua Tou” and break it. That is the main objective of “Chan Meditation”.

      當行者決定好話頭,開始行禪的時候,是有許許多多,忽隱忽現的念頭,與鎖定的的“話頭”同時存在腦海中,也是思想的戰國群雄時代。

      Meditation begins when a “Chan Meditation” person decides on a “Selected Hua Tou”. Meditation usually starts in a chaotic state of mind, as it is difficult to focus on one thought. However, one must lock on the “Selected Hua Tou”.

      在參禪的過程中,要以“本參”的“話頭”為中心,而儘量排除其他不相關的“念頭”,這是一個“練心”的過程;物理學上,就是把許多的粒子,聚集为一个粒子团。

      In “Chan Meditation”, practitioners shall regard “Selected Hua Tou” as the center of their mind, and try to ignore other unrelated thinking. This process trains the mind.  In physics terms, this process resembles the forming of a cloud of particles.

      聚集的粒子团逐漸壯大,這就是從一個小的“話頭”,聚集成為一個“疑團”的過程。

      Like cloud of particles gathers, the “"Hua Tou"" grows to be a “Cloud of Hua Tou”.

      其次,就是確定掌握這個無形的“疑團”,在無形漂浮的空中,不要成為漂浮不定的狀態,而能隨時感覺它的存在,這就是功夫成片的狀態,一個飄浮不定,混在眾多紛紜的念頭中的的“本參話頭”,如果能被控制在這種狀態,參禪的第一步功夫算是成功了。

      This intangible “Cloud of Hua Tou” should always be present within your state of mind. If one can “Holding Hua Tou Firmly”, then the first step of “Chan Meditation” is successful.

      众多粒子被精密集中的时候,是能產生巨大的能量的。就如质子和中子聚集成原子核一样。

      When a sizable amount of particles are concentrated and gathered, enormous amounts of energy will be generated, similar to protons and neutrons forming a nucleus.

      (二) “棒喝”,即是“聲波”態

      (2) “Beating & Shouting” generates sonic power

      在禪門的實修過程中,參禪的行者,首先,必須經過自修的過程,試法把“話頭”聚成“疑團”,甚至“打成一片”。

      During the process of the “Chan Meditation”, the participant must first try to develop the “Hua Tou” into “Cloud of Hua Tou”, eventually “Holding Hua Tou Firmly”.

      如果一位行者,達到這一階段的目標後,他自己是無法破參的,他必須透過六根,去接觸六塵境,藉由外力的影響,產生爆破的動力,去“破參”。”

      One can’t experience “breakthrough” even if he has “Hold Hua Tou Firmly” on his own. It requires some external influence through his six senses to push him to achieve “breakthrough”.

      這個“外力”我又把它分成“自力”與“他力”兩種。所謂的“自力”。就是自己在感受到外界自然的力量,風吹草動,都能構成“破參”的外緣。虛雲祖師,在禪修中,聽到茶杯掉在地上的聲音,而破參的經過,就屬於這一類型的“自力破參”。

      There are two ways to achieve “breakthrough”: “self-breakthrough” and “assisted-breakthrough”.  “Self-breakthrough” utilizes your own power to “breakthrough”. Master XuiYun became enlightened with the sound of a cup drop on the ground; this is an example of “self-breakthrough”.

      另外“他力破參”就是祖師在接引弟子時,所採用的拳打腳踢,喜怒笑罵手段,例如百丈禪師狠狠捏馬祖道一的鼻子,問他鴨子飛到那裏去了,而促使他當下悟道的經過。

      Another method is the “assisted-breakthrough”. For example, a master might push the disciples using means of kicking, hitting, laughing, cursing, etc. One example, Patriarch Baizhang ruthlessly pinched his disciple Mazudaoyi and asked him where ducks flied to; these interactions led Mazudaoyi to his “breakthrough”.

      臨濟宗門下,使用“棒”及“喝”的方法,也是屬於“他力”破參的範圍。

      “Beating & Shouting” approach in LinJi sect belongs to “assisted-breakthrough”.

      從物理學的角度來探討,這個“棒”與“喝”,所產生的是一種“聲波”。而 “波”的強度,代表了它的能量。在聲波中還要考量聲波的頻率,也就波震動的頻繁程度,如果頻率高的話,就是波振動的較頻繁。聲音是可以沿著空氣,水乃至固體前進,但在真空裏,就無法傳播。

      From the perspective of physics, “Beating & Shouting” produces “sonic waves”. The strength of the “waves” represents their energy. Higher the frequency of the wave, more frequently the wave vibrates. Sound can travel in air and water, but not in vacuum.

      這說明在參禪中,主七的人,如果使用“棒”與“喝”或同時使用時,其棒喝的聲波,是可以透過空氣,去刺激參禪行者的。如果,行者入到“定中”,不必到真空中,就已經無法聽到或很小聲的聽到棒喝的聲音,禪門說這種狀態叫“冷水泡石頭”。

      In “Chan Mediation” camps, one may use “Beating & Shouting” method to release sonic wave into the air and stimulate the practitioner. If the practitioner enters samadhi, and he will not be able to receive “Beating & Shouting”. This is called "stone in cold water."

      至於,棒喝所產生的聲波的頻率,到底需要達到什麼程度,才能產生破參的力量,去出破行者的“疑團”?這仍待進一步的研究,但是,至少,在物理學上,我們可以確定的是“高頻段的聲波,將釋放出無窮大的能量”。

      What frequency of the sound waves generated by the “Beating & Shouting” needs to be produced in order to break the practitioner’s “Cloud of Hua Tou”? The precise frequency remains to be further researched, but at least in physics, we are certain that “the high frequency sound waves can release near infinite energy”.

      換言之,如果在禪修中,主七的人,如能妥善的使用“棒”及 “喝”的聲波威力,是能夠在禪堂中,釋放出強大的聲波能量,去衝破行者的疑團,而達到破參的目標。

      Therefore, in the “Chan Mediation” camps, if the person in charge can properly use the “Beating & Shouting” to release a powerful sound wave energy, the practitioner will be able to break the “Hua Tou” and achieve “breakthrough”.

      (三) 能量即是“轉換”態

      (3) Energy is transformative

      根據二十世紀最偉大的物理學家之一,1922年諾貝爾物理獎得主,量子論的奠基人,丹麥裔的尼爾斯波耳 (Neils Bohr)所創立的原子結構的理論。

      One of the greatest physicists of the twentieth century, 1922 Nobel Prize winner, founder of quantum theory, Neils Bohr founded the theory of atomic structure.

      他說:「電子在不同的能量狀態之間可以轉換,或者躍進。」 (p.85) 在波耳的腦海中,原子內部只能釋放特定量的能量,說明電子只能在特定的“勢能位置”之間轉換(p.78)。

      He said: "electrons can be converted between different energy states, or leap." (P.85) in Bohr's mind, an atom can only be released within a specific amount of energy, indicating that the electron can only "potentially convert between the positions "(p.78).

      根據1911年盧瑟福 (ErnestRutherford) 的原子模型提出,電子像行星一樣繞著原子核打轉,而當電子離原子核最近的時候,它的能量最低,可以看成是在“平地”上的狀態。

      According to the 1911 Rutherford’s (Ernest Rutherford) atomic model, electrons circle around the atom’s nucleus and when the electrons are at the closest state to the nucleus, it has the lowest energy and can be seen as a “flat” on the state.

      但是,一旦電子獲得了特定的能量,它就獲得動力,向上攀登一個或幾個台階,到達一個新軌道中;如果,沒有能量的補充,它將又從那個高處的軌道上掉落下來,一直回到“平地”的狀態為止, 同時把當初的能量再次以輻射的形式釋放出來。

      However, once the electron increases to a particular energy state, it will gain momentum, and climb one or several energy levels and arrive at a new energy state; if no energy is added, it will lose its energy and return to its “ground" state. At the same time, it releases the original energy once again in the form of radiation.

      根據以上的物理理論,可以證明及解讀在參禪過程中的一切狀態。

      The physics theories above can prove and interpret everything in the “Chan Meditation”.

      1.電子的能量可以轉換:如果假定在參禪的“話頭”,就是這些“電子”或“量子”,其本身是帶有能量的,而這能量是可以轉換的。

      1. Electron energy conversion:  Assume that a “Hua Tou” represent a particle, which itself is energy, these energy can be transformed.

      2.電子能量最低的狀態,是“平地”狀態:它在參禪中指的是保持在“打成一片”的定態,或者根本就是進入了“入定”的狀態。

      2. Electron’s lowest energy state, is a "flat" state. It is similar to the samadhi state in “Chan Meditation”.

      3.勢能位置的轉換:這個是指在禪堂中,行者個人參禪狀態中起伏狀態,如果“入定”,能量會變低;提起“話頭”時,能量態又會增加,位置的轉換,決定能量的高低。

      3. Potential energy conversion states that the change of the internal states of a “Chan Meditation” person determines the level of his energy state. If he is in samadhi, the energy states become low. As he concentrates in “Hua Tou”, the energy states will increase.

      4.能量的補充:在禪堂中,由於“棒喝”的能量,可以補充參禪行者的能量,所以,行者“話頭”的動力,可以向上攀登,而達到足以“破參”的境界。

      4. Energy addition: Since the energy from the “Beating & Shouting” can add to the “Chan Meditation” person’s energy, it will increase his momentum power of “Hua Tou”, allowing him to reach the “breakthrough”.

      由此,可見禪堂中的能量場,會對每一位參禪行者,產生能量互換,互補的功能。

      Thus, it can clearly be seen that the energy field produced by each “Chan Meditation” person in the meditation hall affects each other through energy exchanges.

      (四)破参即是“共振”态

      (4)“Breakthrough” could be referred to as resonate state

      禅宗的目标是直指人心,见性成佛。为了达到这个目标,禅门祖师们创建了许多直接了当的方法,帮助行者突破各种身心的障碍,临济宗的看公案或者话头,就是其中应用最多的方法,不论顿悟,法门,还是渐修法门,最终的目标还是一致相同,就是要“明心见性”。

      The goal of Chan is to directly work on people’s mind so that they would become enlighten and a Buddha. To achieve this goal, Chan masters developed many methods to help practitioners to overcome the barriers of body and mind. LinJi School use koan (case study) or Hua Tou are some of the most practiced methods. Whether it is sudden enlightenment or gradual enlightenment, the ultimate goal is the same: to become enlightened.

      禅门的方法,早期祖师们并不知道是什么原理,只知道要给弟子设定一个“公案”或“话头”而后要参禅的行者,集中心力去参究它,一直到参破为止,是为“破参”,有人说这是“破本参”,是破初关。

      Early masters don’t really understand the fundamental theory and rationale of the Chan methodology. They only know to give discipline a koan or Hua Tou. Then the Chan practitioners will focus on them until they penetrate the Hua Tou. This is called “breakthrough”.

      如果我们用现代物理学的观点及理论来解读,中国千年来祖师禅“破参”的迷思,就可以活生生地被理解,更重要的是有一个物理的规则可以遵循,禅门的殊胜功德、功能就可以千古流传下去。

      If we use the theory of Quantum physics, the mysterious concept of how Chan masters become enlightened can be understood. More importantly, there are physical rules that can be followed, the supreme merits of Chan can be passed down in the future.

      1.决定论的问题

      On Determinism

      世尊说:“众生皆有如来智慧德相,只因颠倒妄想而不能证得。”所以,佛教徒都想尽办法,不要“颠倒妄想”;我们先不管大家做不做得到;首先,我们要问,如果我们做到不“颠倒妄想”,那我们一定能“证得”吗?这个就是物理学上说的”决定论”的理论。我们先来检视一下物理学上“决定论”的情况。

      Buddha said: "The living creatures all have Tathagata wisdom, however, they can’t access to it because of the false delusions they have." So, Buddhists are figure out ways to stop produce "reversed delusion". It would beg a question that if one could certainly access to Tathagata as long as one stop having reversed delusions. This is the theory of determinism in physics. We would like to exam that theory first.

      从伽利略、牛顿以来,物理学不仅能够解释过去和现在,它还能预言未来。我们的定律和方程能够毫不含糊地预测一颗炮弹的轨迹以及它降落的地点;我们能预言几千年后的日食,时刻准确到秒;事实上,对于任何一个系统,只要给我足够的初始信息,赋予我足够的运算能力,我能够推算出这个体系的一切历史,从它最初怎样开始运行,一直到它在遥远的未来的命运,一切都不是秘密。(p.153)

      Since Galileo and Newton, physics was considered to not only be able to explain the past and present, it could also predict the future. Physical law and the equation can unequivocally predict the trajectory of a bullet and where it would land; we can predict eclipses thousands of years later with a precision of seconds. In fact, determinists believe that if one would be given enough information on the initial state of any system and enough computing power, one was able to figure out all the history of this system. From its initially movement to its destiny in distance future, nothing would remain secrets. (p.153)

      物理学统治整个宇宙,它的过去和未来,一切都尽在掌握。这已经成了物理学家心中深深的信仰。19世纪初,法国的大科学家拉普拉斯(Pierre Simon de Laplace)在用牛顿方程计算出了行星轨道后,把它展示给拿破仑看。拿破仑问道:“在你的理论中,上帝在哪儿呢?”拉普拉斯平静地回答:“陛下,我的理论不需要这个假设。”上帝被物理学赶出了舞台。(p.154)

      Physicists formed a core belief that physics rules the entire universe, and everything is under its control. In the early 19th century, the great French scientist Laplace (Pierre Simon de Laplace) used Newton equation to calculate the planetary orbits, and showed it to Napoleon. Napoleon asked: "Where is God in your theory?" Laplace calmly replied: "Your Majesty, my theory does not require this assumption." God got pushed out by physics. (P.154)

      拉普拉斯想象,假如我们有一个大智者,或者任何拥有足够智慧的人物,假如他能够了解在某一刻,这个宇宙所有分子的运动情况的话,那么他就可以从正反两个方向推演,从而得出宇宙在任意时刻的状态。对于这样的智者来说,没有什么过去和未来的分别,一切都历历在目。宇宙从它出生的那一刹那开始,就坠入了一个预定的轨道,它严格地按照物理定律发展,没有任何岔路可以走,一直到遇见它建注定的命运为止。(p.154)

      According to Laplace, if we have a great sage or anyone who has enough wisdom to understand movements of all molecules in a certain moment, that person would be able to deduct in both forward and back forward fashion to arrive at a state of universe at any time. For such wise people, there is no difference between the past and future. The universe is on a set trajectory ever since its birth. Its development strictly follows the laws of physics without alternative path until it reaches its destiny. (P.154)

      整个宇宙只不过是一台精密的机器,它的每个零件都按照定律一丝不苟地运行。这种想法就是古典的、严格的决定论(determinism):宇宙从出生的那一刹那起,就有一个确定的命运。我们现在无法了解它,只是因为我们所知道的信息太少而已。(p.155)

      The entire universe is just a sophisticated machine, each of its parts are run in accordance with the laws of physics scrupulously. The idea is classical, strict determinism: the universe has certain destiny since its birth. We are unable to understand it only because we know too little information. (P.155)

      矜持的决定论在20世纪首先遭到了量子论的严重挑战,随后混沌动力学的兴起使它彻底被打垮。现在我们已经知道,即使没有量子论把概率这一基本属性赋予自然界,就牛顿方程本身来说,许多系统也是格不稳定的,任何细小的干扰都能够对系统的发展造成极大的影响,差以毫厘,失之千里。这些干扰从本质上说是不可预测的,因此想凭借牛顿方程来预测整个系统从理论上说也是不可行的。典型的例子是长期的天气预报,大家可能都已经听说过洛伦兹(Edward Lorenz)著名的“蝴蝶效应”:哪怕一只蝴蝶轻微地扇动它的翅膀,也能给整个天气系统造成戏剧性的变化。现在的天气预报也已经普遍改用概率性的说法,比如“明天的降水概率是20%”。(p.156)

      Reserved determinism was the first severely challenged by quantum theory in the 20th century, and was completely defeated by the rise of chaotic dynamics. We now know that even without quantum theory gives nature probability as a basic property; it is impossible to predict the system only by Newton's equations. As many systems are unstable, any small disturbance can cause great impacts on the development of the system. These disturbances are essentially unpredictable, and therefore relying on Newton's equation to predict the entire system is not feasible in theory. A typical example is the long-term weather forecasts, we might have already heard of Edward Lorenz’s famous "butterfly effect" theory: A disturbance as little as a butterfly flapping its wings slightly could cause dramatic changes on the whole weather system. That’s why the weather forecast adopted the expressions of probability, such as "Tomorrow probability of precipitation is 20%." (P.156)

      1986年,著名的流体力学权威,詹姆士 莱特希尔爵士(Sir James Lighthill,他于1969年从狄拉克手里接过剑桥卢卡萨教授的席位,也就是牛顿曾担任过的那个)于皇家学会纪念牛顿《原理》发表300周年的集会上作出了轰动一时的道歉:“现在我们都深深意识到,我们的前辈对牛顿力学的惊人成就是那样崇拜,这使他们把它总结成一种可预言的系统,而且说实话,我们在1960年以前也大都倾向于相信这个说法,但现在我们知道这是错误的。我们以前曾经误导了公众,向他们宣传说满足牛顿运动定律的系统是决定论的,但是这在1960年后已被证明不是真的。我们都愿意在此向公众表示道歉。”(p.157)

      In 1986, the famous authority hydrodynamics, Sir James Lighthill, made a sensational apology in the rally organized by Royal Society to commemorate the 300th anniversary of publishing Newton’s "principle": "Now we are deeply aware that our predecessors,out of the deep worship of the amazing achievements of Newtonian mechanics, conclude that the status of system can be predicted. To be honest, most of we tend to believe this argument before 1960. However, we now know this is wrong. We used to mislead the public and told them that systems that satisfy the Newton's laws of motion can be determined the theory. This statement proves to be wrong after 1960. We are willing to apologize to the public. "(p.157)

      决定论的垮台是否注定了自由意志的兴起?这在哲学上是很值得探讨的,事实上,在量子论之后,物理学越来越陷于形而上学的争论中。也许形而上学(metaphysics)应该改个名字叫“量子论之后”(metaquantum)。(p.157)

      Is the collapse of determinism lead to the rise of free will? It is worth exploring in philosophy. In fact, after the quantum theory, physics increasingly caught in the debate of metaphysics. Perhaps metaphysics should be renamed as metaquantum. (P.157)

      2. 概率论的问题

      2. Probability Theory

      根据物理学家波恩(Max Born)在1926年提出的“骰子”理论,“概率论”一度成为物理学的主要辩证理论。

      According to "dice" theory which physicist Max Born proposed in 1926, the "probability theory" became the main dialectical theory of physics.

      波恩解释了电子在某个地点出现的“概率”。电子本身不会像波那样扩展开去,但是它的出现概率则像一个波,严格地按照函数的分布所展开。如粒子派指出的那样,每次电子只会在屏上打出一个小点,只有当成群的电子穿过双缝后,才会逐渐组成整个图案。(p.155)

      Bonn explained the "probability" for electron to appear in one place. Electronics itself is not as spread out like a wave, but its probability of occurrence is like a wave, strictly obtain a distribution function. Just as people who hold the particle viewpoints pointed out, a single electron will result in a small dot in random place on the screen. Only when swarms of electrons pass through the double slits, the entire pattern will gradually appear. (P.155)

      波恩的意思是,就算我们把电子的初始状态测量得精确无误,就算我们拥有最强大的计算机可以计算一切环境对电子的影响,即便如此,我们也不能预言电子最后的准确位置。这种不确定不是因为我们的计算能力不足,它是深藏在物理定律本身内部的一种属性。即使从理论上来说,我们也不能准确地预测大自然。这已经不是推翻某个理论的问题,这是对整个决定论系统的挑战,而决定论是那时整个科学的基础。量子论要改造整个科学。(p.155)

      Born mean that even if we precisely measured the initial state of an electron, and even if we have the most powerful computer can calculate all the environmental impacts on the electron, we can not predict the exact future location of the electron. This uncertainty is not caused by lack of computing power. It is an attribute buried deeply in the laws of physics itself. Even in theory, we cannot accurately predict nature. This is not an overthrow of a certain theory. It is a challenge to the system of determinism, which is the basis of all scientific disciplines at that time. Quantum theory would transform science. (P.155)

      概率论,对于佛教的修行是个重要的参数。净土宗的修行,到底念佛多少次,念到什么时候,念到什么程度,往生西方的“概率”是多少?密宗说:“即身成佛”,那概率有多少呢?禅宗在参禅时,“破参”的概率又有多少呢?

      Probability theory is an important parameter to the Buddhist practice. Take Pure Land Buddhism practice for example, how many time of the Budda’s name should one chant to what extent, so that one may reborn in the Western Paradise? What’s the probability of reborn?  Tantric said: "Reach Buddhahood in this life."  What’s its probability? In addition, what’s the probability for one to “breakthrough”?

      曾经辉煌被认为是真理的“决定论”,在物理学及科学界上,已被认定是不正确的了。这对所有的宗教,传达了一个什么样的信息呢?“你信上帝,就真(一定)能上天堂吗?” “你念一句佛号,就真 (一定) 能到西方极乐世界吗?”所谓的“宿命论”那就更被打破了。

      Determinism, once gloriously considered to be truth, is proved to be wrong in physics and scientific communities. What type of messages does this change deliver to all religions?   “Will you certainly be able to go to heaven because you believe in God?" "Will you certainly reborn in Western Paradise because you repeatedly chanting the name of Amitābha Buddha. The so-called “fatalism” is more readily disapproved.

      佛教说佛教是“因缘法”,是“因果论”;不是“宿命论”,也不是“决定论”。因为“因果论”是随机随缘的;而“决定论”却不是随机随缘的。

      Buddhism is considered to follow "karma law" and "causality"; not "fatalism", not "determinism." Because "causality" believes results are shaped by incidences along the way while "determinism" does not consider the impacts of rising incidences.

      3. 暴涨论的问题

      3. Cosmic Inflation

      量子效应使得一小块时空突然从根本没有时空中产生,然后因为各种力的作用,它突然呈指数级地膨胀起来,在瞬间扩大到整个宇宙的尺度。MIT的科学家阿伦 古斯(Alan Guth)在这种想法上出发,创立了宇宙的“暴涨理论”(Inflation)。在宇宙创生的极早期,各块空间都以难以想象的惊人速度暴涨,这使得宇宙的总体积增大了许多许多倍。这就可以解释为什么今天它结构在各个方向看来都是均匀同一的。(p173)

      MIT scientist Alan Guth proposed the cosmic inflation theory based on the following idea: Quantum effect caused the initial creation of time and space, and then space exponentially expands to the scale of the universe in no time. In the creation of the very early universe, space inflated at unimaginable and alarming rate, which makes the total volume of the universe increases many, many times. This may explain why the universe looks uniform in every direction. (P173)

      暴涨理论创立以来也已经出现多个版本,虽然很难确定地证实这个理论究竟是否正确,但大多数物理学家对其还是偏爱的,认为这是一个有希望的理论。1998年,古斯还出版了一本通俗的介绍暴涨的书,他最爱说的一句话是:“宇宙本身就是一顿免费午餐。”意思是宇宙是从一无所有中而来的。值得一提的是,NASA(美国国家航空航天局)在1989年发射了COBE卫星以观测宇宙的背景辐射,它最近发回的数据图像和暴涨理论所预言的基本上是符合的,这也算是对暴涨理论的一个初步支持。(p173)

      There have been many version of the inflation theory since its creation. Although it is difficult to confirm the accuracy of this theory, most physicists still consider it promising. In 1998, Guth has published a popular science book on Inflation. His favorite sayings is that: "The universe itself is a free lunch." Meaning that the universe came from nothing. It is worth mentioning that NASA launched COBE satellite in 1989 to observe cosmic background radiation. It sent back data and image that’s consistent with the predictions of inflation theory, which would be preliminary supports for the inflation theory. (P173)

      以上物理学上的推理,宇宙是大爆炸而产生的。我个人在见证禅修中破参的状态;我认为,在 “破参”的当下,我们的大脑,甚至整个身体也经历了一次“爆炸”的洗礼,是在参禅中,“波粒”共振而产生的爆破现象。这个“爆破”对于人体及大脑会产生什么样的影响,这还待进一步的科学检测,但是,我深信,这中间一定隐藏着宇宙的秘密。

      Above physics theories suggest that the universe is produced by the Big Bang. According to my personal witness of “breakthrough” in the Chan Meditation, I believe that our mind and even body will be experiencing a “big bang” when “breakthrough”. Such “explosion” is caused by the resonance of the previous mentioned "wave-particle" in Chan Meditation. The impacts of such "explosion" on human body and brain are yet to be measured by scientific methods. However, I am deeply convinced that it contains some hidden secrets of the universe.

      4.真空的问题

      4.  Vacuum

      “首先爱因斯坦的相对论告诉我们空间本身也能扭曲变形,事实上引力只不过是它的弯曲而已。而海森堡的不确定性原理展现了更奇特的场景:我们知道t测量得越准确,E就越不确定。所以在非常短的一刹那,也就是t非常确定的一瞬间,即使真空中也会出现巨大的能量起伏。这种能量完全是靠着不确定性而凭空出现的,它的确违反了能量守恒定律!但是这一刹那极短,在人们还没有来得及发现时,它又神秘消失,使得能量守恒定律在整体上得以维持。可以凭空出现的能量也就越大。”(p172)

      "First of all, Einstein's theory of relativity tells us that space itself can be distorted. In fact, gravity is a result of that. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle presents us an even more curious scene: the more accurate a measurement of time is, the less accurate the measurement of energy become. Therefore, in a very brief moment (which means the measurement of time is very accurate), there could be a large fluctuation of energy. Such emerging energy comes out of nothing is supported by the uncertainty principle, however it indeed seems to violate the law of conservation of energy! To resolve such contradiction, the emerging energy can only exist for an extremely brief moment and it mysteriously disappears before it can be measured. In this way, the conservation of energy can be preserved overall. The shorter the moment is, the larger the energy may emerge from nothing."(p172)

      我许多学生在参禅中间,均能感到身上产生一些莫名的能量,而当破参的那一刹那,更是凭空出现一股强大的能量,冲向虚空。这可以证明物理学中,凭空出现的能量,是可以在参禅中证实的。

      Many of my students feel the body suddenly filled with inexplicable energy during Chan Meditation. Particularly in the moment of “breakthrough” one would experience strong power came out from nowhere, soaring toward the empty vacuum.  Those phenomena show that emerging energy predicted by physics can be confirmed by meditation practice.

      “现在如果我们谈论“空”,应该明确地说:没有物质,没有能量,没有时间,也没有空间。这才是什么都没有,它根本不能够想象(你能想象没有空间是什么样子吗?)。不过有不少人说,这也不算“空”,因为空间和时间本身似乎可以通过某种机制从一无所有中被创造出来,那究竟怎样才算“空”呢?。”(p172)

      "We should clearly define the emptiness discussed here. It means that there is no matter, no energy, no time, and no space. It simply is beyond imagination, for example can you image what it is like if there is the space?  But there are a lot of people saying that this definition still does not accurately define "empty" because time and space itself seems to be able to originate from nothing by some kind of mechanism. Thus, what exactly constitutes "empty"? "(p172)

      “空”的概念,在佛教中,非常的重要。佛教说“自性本空”, “诸法皆空”,“诸法从本来,常自寂灭相(空相)”;佛教又提到:“真空生妙有”。而且参禅修者,在破参刹那,的确是可以证到“虚空粉碎”的境界的。

      "Empty/vacuum" is an extremely important concept in Buddhism. Buddhism teaches "the nature of self is empty", "all dharmas are empty", "all dharmas are created from a fundamental original, which constantly persist a deadly silent phase (Empty)"; Buddhism also mentioned: "True vacuum can create wonderful existences." In addition, practitioners of Chan Meditation can indeed obtain the state of “shatter the emptiness” in the moment of “breakthrough”.

      “曾经所有的科学家都认为,无中生有是绝对不可能的,物质不能被凭空制造,能量也不能被凭空制造,遑论时空本身。但是不确定性原理的出现把这一切旧观念都粉碎了。”(p172)

      "Once all the scientists agreed that making something out of nothing is absolutely impossible. Materials cannot be created in a vacuum, energy cannot be created in a vacuum, not to mention time and space itself. But appearance of the uncertainty principle crushed all these old believes." ( p172)

      “海森堡告诉我们,在极小的空间和极短的时间里,什么都是有可能发生的。能量物质可以逃脱物理定律的束缚,自由自在地出现和消失。但是,这种自由的代价就是它只能限定在那一段极短的时间内,当时刻一到,灰姑娘就要现出原形,这些神秘的物质能量便要消失,以维护质能守恒定律在大尺度上不被破坏。”(p172)

      "Heisenberg told us, in an extremely tiny space and extremely short period of time, everything is possible. Energy substances can escape the shackles of physical laws, free to appear and disappear. However, the price of freedom is that these energy substances are confined within an extremely short period of time. When the time comes, Cinderella has to show his true colors, and these mysterious energy substances will have to disappear in order to preserve mass-energy conservation on a large scale. "(p172)

      在以上这几段文字中,我们确实的感受到物理学上的定律与发现,已经在证实佛教“真空生妙有”的理论。 “性空”中,的确是可以产生“缘起”的。只是不过科学家永远测不到,我们现在这“缘起”而产生的世间,在整个宇宙的“真空”中,是在哪一点上的。

      In these few paragraphs above, we indeed feel the laws and discovery of physics are consistent with Buddhism theory of "True vacuum could create wonderful existence" theory. "Empty nature" could indeed result in "origination of things". However, scientists could never measure where the universe raised from the vacuum of the universe.

      结论

      Conclusion

      我们常常说佛教的精神是科学的,理论是实证的,但是在科学化当头的时代,佛教拿不出可以实证的事实。本文的重点,就是基于实际的禅修,用科学理论来描述禅修的科学性,给当今佛教研究开启一个新的途径。

      We often say that the spirit of Buddhism is a scientific, and its theory can be verified by actual practice. However, in this era of science, Buddhism cannot give empirical proofs. The focus of this article is based on the actual Chan Meditation, to describe the science of Chan Meditation with scientific theories. Hopefully, this article could find a new pathway of modern Buddhism study.

      2015年8月6日 完稿于洛杉矶

      Note:

      1.本文中的引用皆由此书: 曹天元 著: 上帝掷骰子么? 量子物理史话

      ISBN 978-7-5502-1745-4, 北京联合出版公司出版。

      All citations in this article came from following book:  History of Quantum Physics by Tianyuan Cao, ISBN 978-7-5502-1745-4, Beijing United Publish Company.

      2. 本文打字编辑及翻译由林净智, Eric Gan, 陈昱光, 柯毅博士完成.

      K.C Lin, Eric Gan, Yuguang Chen, Yi Ke,Ph.D edited and translated this paper.

      3. 如果任何评论请致作者victorchiang@yahoo.com.

      If you have any comments please email the author at victorchiang@yahoo.com.

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