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  • [菲]传印:合作與發展——佛教和平論壇

     

      前言

      首先感恩中國佛教協會與中華宗教文化交流協會主辦的世界佛教論壇,讓世界各地的佛教徒,有機會共聚一堂,互相交流,加緊合作,為謀求世界和平盡一分力量。

      第四屆佛教論壇的主題是“同願同行,交流互鑒”,世界和平是所有的宗教,全世界所有人民的共同願望。要達到和平,必須付諸實際行動。透過交流、理解、協商、互惠合作,以和平的方式解決各種紛爭。

      慘痛的戰爭

      人類自有歷史以來就有戰爭,原始時期零星的部落戰爭、上古時期的小國爭雄、中古時期的列強爭霸,至上世紀發生了两次空前悲慘的世界大戰。當我們閱讀史料、觀看戰爭紀錄片,那種悲慘、殘忍的鏡頭畫面,作為萬物之靈,自命聰明的人類,應當深思!

      今年適逢世界反法西斯及抗日戰爭勝利七十周年,回顧歷史:歐洲納粹政權發動侵略鄰國,進行種族迫害的殘酷手段;中國人民在歷時八年抗日戰爭的苦難日子裡;日本人民遭受美國投下廣島、長崎二棵原子彈的悲慘場面,是人類有史以來最為慘烈的戰爭;人類應以史為鑒,檢討、深刻反省過去,才有光明的未來,我們絕不敢想象第三次世界大戰的發生。被侵害者固然遭受苦難,侵略者也要付出代價,戰爭是殘酷的,戰爭是沒有真正的贏家!

      戰爭的根源

      人類發生戰爭,歸納起來有三大原因:一是資源的爭奪,二是權力的爭奪,三是文明的衝突。

      古代,人類為了獵捕區域的佔奪,農夫為了耕地、水源的擁有,經常發生爭奪戰。近代,工業發展迅速,各國更為了礦產、石油等天然資源控制而戰亂頻生。

      歷史告訴我們,古今中外,為了奪取政權,以殘忍殺戮,毀滅性的破壞而改朝換代。小國為了爭霸,大國為了擴張,戰爭帶來的災難,受苦的還是廣大的老百姓。

      人類隨著文明的演進,每個地域、每個民族、每個國家,都有它的生活方式、思維方式、信仰上的差異、價值觀念的不同。這種文化的差異,如果缺乏交流,沒有適當的理解與良性溝通,很容易產生誤會而摩擦,因堅持己見而劇烈排斥,對峙而發生衝突,甚至發生戰爭。

      和平的道路

      上述三類引發戰爭的原因,以今日世界的文明發展趨勢,訊息的發達,交通的便利,世界人民交往頻繁,各國政制逐漸趨向完善,外交管道暢通。所以,資源的分配交易,可以互補、平等互惠的談判,協商而達到彼此雙贏的效果。

      當今,世界潮流推崇政治修明,以民為本,以選舉、協商的方式為國為民謀求幸福,放棄暴力式的動亂,甚至內戰而完成政權的交替,因權力的爭奪戰爭是可避免的。

      人類為了生存,為了改善生活而發動資源爭奪戰爭,這是比較容易理解的。但是,為了思維的不同、觀念的差異,而意氣用事發動戰爭,這是文明的倒退,人類的悲哀,是人類最愚蠢的行為。

      國際性的文化交流,不論衣、食、住、科學、醫學、哲學、文學、藝術、音樂……等等,各種領域,各行各業,在頻密的交往中,彼此欣賞,互相切磋、學習、去蕪存精,東西方文化的學術交流,互補融合,各民族的風俗習慣互相尊重,不同信仰的彼此包容,文明的衝突戰爭會因世界一體化的大趨勢而逐漸自動消除。

      我們堅信,人與人之間,國與國之間雖有矛盾、衝突、但,經過長時期頻繁的交流,充分的理解,建立互信,以尊重、包容的心態,多元並存,人類所嚮往的和平世界是可以實現的。

      聖者的共鳴

      西元前五世紀之際,中國有孔子、老子的誕生,古印度有釋迦牟尼,古希臘有蘇格拉底、柏拉圖、亞裡斯多德等哲人的誕生。那時,三大文明古國的聖者沒有機緣相遇,沒有機緣對話。然而,經過兩千多年的歷史長河中,他們的思想哲理,至今還是不約而同,永遠地影響著全世界,引導著我們步向和平的康莊大道。

      結語

      佛教主張破除“我執”。所謂“我執”,是以自我為中心的執著;由此而衍生自私、嫉妒、傲慢、貪、嗔、癡等不良行為。要世界和平,首先要組成世界的每個細胞——我們每一個人,先從自身做起。所謂“諸惡莫作,眾善奉行,自淨其意,是諸佛教”。

      佛教主張“緣起無我”。認為宇宙所有的物質,人生的喜、怒、哀、樂,思想的認知領域,家庭、社會、國家的組成……都是眾緣和合而產生的,每個個體,每件事物的產生,必有它的前因後果。現象界的一切,由眾多的條件,因緣聚合而生,每一個個體是不能單獨成立的。

      例如:我們的身體是由四大:地、水、火、風和合而成;大自然現象界是由:固體、液體、熱能、氣體、空間等主要元素交互組合而成;植物的成長,必須有種籽、土壤、水份、陽光、空氣……等經過培植才能開花結果。

      社會是由士、農、工、商、學各界組合而成,人民的衣、食、住、行是依賴著社會各階層生產提供。由此觀之,人類與自然界要互相尊重,重視環保,才能風調雨順。人與人之間,國與國之間要互相扶持,關懷、包容、彼此尊重,促進社會和諧乃至世界和平。佛教的“緣起無我觀”是締造人際間的融洽,社會的共同繁榮發展,最終達至世界和平的根本思想指導。

      謹以佛教的“緣起無我觀”與大家分享。並預祝第四屆世界佛教論壇圓滿成功!

      菲律賓信願寺住持  傳印  述

      2015年8月19日

      Cooperation and Development—Buddhist Peace Forum

      First I would like to express my gratitude to the Buddhist Association of China and China Religious and Cultural Communication Association for giving the Buddhists around the world the opportunity to gather together in this hall to offer the best we can through colaborationl and cooperation in order to promote peace in the world.

      The theme of this forum is "Same vow walks together, mutual exchange and learning". World peace is the common aspiration of all religions and all the people in the world. In order to achieve peace, we must put into practice through communication, understanding, consultation, mutual benefit and cooperation and

      by means of peaceful settlement for all kinds of disputes

      Miserable Wars

      As recorded in the history, there are wars in humankind. During the primeval time, there were sporadic tribal wars. In the ancient time, small countries fight for supremacy.

      In the middle age those in great power struggle for hegemony until the last century an unprecedented world war occurred. The cruel footage were recorded in the historical data and war documentaries. Yet those who proclaimed themselves as intelligent think this is an achievement and effective action. They should ponder seriously and deeply.

      This year marks the victory of world anti-fascist and the 70th anniversary of the War of Resistance against Japan. Chinese people suffered for eight years during the War of Resistance Against Japan. And during that time Japan sustained tragic atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Human beings should learn from history. We should inspect and deeply reflect on the past in order to have a bright future. Those victims of aggression suffered tremendously while those invaders will definitely pay for the price. War is cruel and ruthless. There is no real winner.

      The Source of War

      There are 3 causes of wars.

      1.    Human beings fight for natural resources.

      2.    People struggling for power.

      3.    Conflict in civilization.

      In the ancient times, people seized by force the territory of others. Farmers wanted to possess water supply for their farm which resulted to fighting. Now a day, the fast development of industry, every country wants to be in control of mineral, oil, and natural resources. As a result, chaos arises.

      History tells us at all times and all places, people desire to grab for political power, they become destructive and killed without mercy to change regime. Small countries struggle for supremacy, big countries contend for expansion of territories. The citizens are the victims of disasters caused by wars which bring so much suffering to them.

      Mankind goes along with the progress of civilization. Every region, every nation, and every country has its own way of life, way of thinking, different beliefs and values. The lack in cultural exchange, proper understanding and virtuous communication will easily give rise to misunderstanding and friction. Holding on to one’s own views and extreme exclusion of others leads to confrontation and conflict. Therefore, fighting occurs.

      The Path to Peace

      The three causes of wars were mentioned before. Today, the growing trend of our civilization, flourishing text messages, convenient transportation, and frequent association, the political system has improves gradually and diplomatic relation with other countries becomes accessible. Hence, the distribution of natural resources complements each other. There is an equal and mutual benefit in negotiation and consultation. A win-win for both parties is achieved.

      At present time, the global trend highly praise the enlightened attitude of people in politics.. They replaces violence and turmoil with election and consultation for the sake of the country and people to accomplish political power. Thus fighting for power can be avoided.

      Human beings, in order to survive and to improve their lives, they resorted into fighting over natural resources. It is comprehensible. However, due to diversity in thinking, differences in ideas, people are swayed by personal feelings which eventually lead to war. It is sorrowful and the most silly behavior of human beings. The civilization has retrogressed.

      The international cultural exchanges regardless of clothing, food, housing, science, medicine, philosophy, literature, art, music, and so forth, in the midst of frequent communication, they appreciate each other and learn from one another by exchanging ideas, working together without flaws. Academic and cultural exchanges between the east and west, complimenting and merging with each other, respect for ethnic custom and tradition, tolerance of different beliefs, the trend of world’s integration eventually removes the conflict in civilization.

      We strongly believe that although there are conflicts among people and between countries however with frequent communication, ample of understanding, mutual trust, attitude of respect and tolerance, and the coexistence of the great many, a peaceful nature can be realized. This is what the people want to attain.

      Voice of the Sages

      The birth of Confucius, Lao Tzu in China in the 5th century B.C. , Shakyamuni Buddha in ancient India, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, and other philosophers from Greece, at that time, the three great civilization of Sages has no opportunity to meet. No change to engage in dialogue. Yet their philosophic theory and ideology happen to coincide. They will always influence the whole world. This will guide us to the main road towards peace.

      Epilogue

      Buddhism advocates the elimination of “Attachment to Self ”

      It means “self-centered”. Attachment to one self give rise to jealousy, arrogant, greed, foolishness and unwholesome behavior. If we want peace in the world, we must start from within ourselves. We must spread peace in every corner of the world.

      It is said, “Refrain from doing all evils and offer up all good conduct, and purify one’s mind”. This is called Buddhism.

      Buddhism emphasizes “Dependent Origination with No Self”.

      The myriad things in the universe, happiness, anger, grief, and joy, cognitive domain, family, society, and countries come forth due to the coming together of numerous conditions. The occurrence of every substance has its cause and effect. It will not happen on its own.

      For example, our body are made up of four great elements. They are earth, water, fire and wind. The existence of nature is the polymerization of solid, liquid, heat, air, and empty space. In order for the plant to grow, seed must be planted. Soil, water, sunlight, air, and care etc. are needed to make it flourish and bear fruit.

      The society is made up of agriculture, industrial, commercial and academic community. Food, clothing, shelter and transport are dependent of the provision of the social stratum. We can see from here that human beings and the nature should have mutual respect for one another. We must pay attention to the environmental protection to have favorable weather conditions.

      People and countries should support, care, tolerate, and respect one another to promote peace and harmony in the world. The “Contemplation of Dependent Origination with No Self” creates interpersonal harmony, prosperity and development. Eventually, the guiding fundamental ideology for world peace will be achieved.

      It is an honor for me to be able to share the “Contemplation of Dependent Origination with No Self” in Buddhism. I wish the 4th World Buddhist Forum complete success.

      BY Ven.Chuan Yin the Abbot of Philippine Seng Guan Temple

      August 19 2015

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