佛教文化2003年第1期   第89页

  本栏目是为初中水平以上英文水平的读者开设的。我们相信,大家的水平早就逾出了“这是一本书”、“那是一只笔”的英语阶段。大家想了解的是如何用浅显的简单的英语词汇和语法来表达深邃的佛教。我们在这里的英文段落都取自佛陀教育基金会印行的一本叫做“Good Question,Good Answers”的册子。原著者是达弥卡上座,他是在西方世界宣说佛教的南传上座部僧人。他的英文用字简单,句子也简短,极易上口,非常适合初学者的学习。引用者对这些引文略有改动。希望听到读者们对此的反馈意见,以利于我们改进这一栏目工作。

祇园英语



  What ys the buddhism?

  The name Buddhism comes from the word“buddhi” which means “to wake up” and thus Bud-dhism is the philosophy of awakening. This philoso-phy has its origins in the experience of the manSiddhata Gotama, known as the Buddha, who was him-self awakened at the age of 36. Buddhism is now 2500years old and has about 300 million followers aroundthe world. Until a hundred years ago, Buddhism wasmainly an Asian philosophy but increasingly it is gain-ing adherents in Europe and America.

  什么是佛教?

  “佛教”一名来源于“buddhi”意为“觉醒、觉悟”,因此也可以说佛教是一种关于觉醒或觉悟的哲学。这一哲学来源于那个叫做释迦牟尼的人的体验。他因此被称作“佛陀”(即“觉悟者”或“觉者”)。他在36岁的那一年得到觉悟。佛教至今已有2500年的历史,全世界有三亿佛教徒。直到一百年之前,佛教还主要是亚洲的一种哲学,但今天,在欧洲和美洲,它正在获得日益增多的信奉者。

  So buddhism ys just a philosophy?

  The word philosophy comes from two words“philo” which means “love” and “sophia” which means“wisdom”. So philosophy is the love of wisdom or loveand wisdom, both meanings describing Buddhismperfectly.
  Buddhism teaches that we should try to developour intellectual capacity to the fullest so that we canunderstand clearly. It also teaches us to develop loveand kindness so that we can be like a true friend to allbeings. So Buddhism is a philosophy but not just aphilosophy. It is the supreme philosophy.

  佛教只是一种哲学吗?

  哲学一词来源于“philo。”和“sophia”,前者意思为“爱”,后者意思为“智(慧)”。所以哲学也就是“对智慧的爱”或者为“爱与智慧”。这二者用来描述佛教都是非常贴切的。
  佛教教导我们应该最大限度与可能地努力发展我们的智慧,以使我们明白地理解事物。它又教导我们昼地发展我们的爱心与善意,以使我们能够对待一切(有情)存在就像真正的朋友那样。所以,佛教又不只是一种哲学。它是最高的哲学。

  Who was the Buddha?

  In the year 563 B.C. a baby was bom into a royalfamily in northern Indian. He grew up in wealth andluxury but eventually found that worldly comfort andsecurity do not guarantee happiness. He was deeplymoved by the suffering he saw all around and resolvedto find the key to human happiness. When he 29 heleft his wife and child and set off to sit at the feet ofthe great religious teachers of the day to learn fromthem. They taught him much but none really knew thecause of human sufferings and how it could beovercome. Eventually, after six years' study and medi-tation he had an experience in which all ignorance fellaway and he suddenly understood. From that dayonwards, he was called Buddha, the Awakened One.He lived for another 45 years in which time he trav-eled all over northern India teaching others what hehad discovered. His compassion and patience werelegendary and he made thousands of followers. In hiseightieth year, old and sick, but still happy and at peace,he finally died.

  佛陀是谁?

  公元前563年,北印度的一个王家生了一个婴儿。他成长于富贵与奢华之中,但他却最终发现世间的一切舒适与保障都不足以保持人的幸福。他被自己周围的痛苦所打动,决意要寻求获得幸福的秘诀。他在29岁时抛妻离子,投身于当时的一些宗教大师足下,向他们学习。经过六年的学习,他最终获得了自己的(宗教)体验,于是一切无明都离散瓦解了,他获得了顿然的觉悟。从此以后,他就被称为“佛陀”,也就是觉悟者。以后的45年中间,他漫游于整个北印度,以自己的所发现的真理教授给他人。他的慈悲与忍辱远近传闻,他摄服了成千上万的信众。他在年届80之时谢世,其时虽又老又病,但却充满喜悦与安宁。

 

  王维诗二首

  王维的许多抒发隐居情调的诗歌都写于他的辋川别墅。他的诗歌同禅宗的意境相关也是人所共识的事。王维是神会的朋友,应神会之约,他曾经为六祖慧能写过《六祖能禅师碑铭》。这里谨介绍他的两首小诗及英译。英译者为BurtonWatson,出自 The Columbia Book Of ChinesePoetry: From Early Times tO the ThirteenthCentury.纽约,哥伦比亚大学出版社出版。

  鹿 柴

  空山不见人,但闻人语声,
  返影照深林,复照青苔上。

  注:鹿柴之“柴”指篱笆。返影,日头西沉,光影照于东侧,谓之返影。
  这首五言绝句追求的禅境在于“无人境地”,虽有“人语声”,但还是以“深林”“光影”来显示空山之静。
  Deer Fence
  Empty hills, no one in sight,
  only the sound of someone talking;
  late sunlight enters the deep wood,
  shining over the green moss again.
  翻译点评:诗译得当然不错,但似也有点疑问。鹿柴是地名,其意义本指“鹿之栖息处”,译成“鹿之篱笆”或“鹿之栅栏”有点偏离原意,但该怎么译处理呢?请读者发表意见吧。

  竹里馆

  独坐幽篁里,弹琴复长啸,
  深林人不知,明月来相照。

  注:幽篁,即竹林也。啸,此指人蹙口而发悠长的声音。古人以此发声法而求气通天地。这是诗人山居自得其乐的写照。

  Bamboo Mile Lodge
  Alone I sit in dark bamboo,
  strumming the lute, whistling away;
  deep woods that no one knows,
  where a bright moon comes to shine on me.
  翻译点评:仍然是诗名的译法。竹里馆亦是地名,字面上说,为“竹丛中之馆舍”,现在英译者仅按字面含义处理成”竹”,bamboo:“里”,mile。是否干脆用音译“Zhuli得了?