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  • 佛教与公益慈善

     

    随着寺院经济的壮大和弘法活动的开展,各地佛教界在积极从事慈善公益事业过程中,许多地方还成立了各种形式的慈善功德基金会。截止至2012年底,在民政部门正式登记注册的各级佛教慈善团体有70余家。佛教慈善团体在社会各领域也发挥着重要作用。比如:北京市仁爱慈善基金会,在国家遭遇重大灾难时,定位于做政府主流救灾体系的补充者、民间公益组织的协调者、灾民可以信赖的服务者和陪伴者、灾后原生公益力量的培育者。通过一线、贴身、持续、补漏的关怀模式,以救难、救急、救助、救济四个阶段展开赈灾工作,尤其侧重通过灾后陪伴和培育当地公益组织的方式,帮助灾民进行生活和心理重建。仁爱慈善基金会曾参与2008年四川汶川特大地震、2010年玉树地震、舟曲泥石流mud-rock flow、2011年云南盈江地震、2013雅安地震、2014年海南文昌风暴、云南鲁甸地震等灾害救助。在国家有难、人民有灾时,勇于担当,传递慈爱力量。

    With the improvement of the temples financial situation and the development of Dharma spreading activity, during the process of active charity causes, the Buddhist circles of different places also founded charitable virtuous foundations of various forms. By the end of 2012, more than 70 Buddhist charitable groups were registered officially in local civil administrations. Buddhist charitable groups also play an important role in various realms of society. Take Beijing Ren Ai Charity Foundation as an example. When the country encounters severe disasters, Ren Ai settled its position as the supplement to the major governmental disaster-relief system, coordinator of folk charity organizations, the reliable servers and companions of the victims and the nurses of local charity power after the disaster. By virtue of such caring models as going to the front line, accompanying constantly, helping continuously and making up deficiencies, the relief work was carried out in four stages: rescuing from the disaster, rescuing from the emergency, rescuing those in need and rescuing the shortage. Special emphasis was put on the work of accompanying and fostering local charity organization after the disaster to help the victims reconstruct their lives and mental state. Ren Ai Charity Foundation participating in the disaster relief actions, proving relief for victims of the Wenchuan Earthquake in Sichuan in 2008, Yushu Earthquake in 2010, Mud-rock flow in Zhouqu, Yingjiang Earthquake in Yunnan in 2011, Yaan Earthquake in 2013, Wen Chang windstorm in Hainan in 2014 and the Ludian Earthquake in Yunnan. When the nation and people of China suffer a disaster, Ren Ai courageously bears the responsibilities and transmits the power of compassion. 

    四、现代佛教公益慈善的新模式

    IV. The New Model of Modern Buddhist Charity

    随着当今时代的快速发展,社会、民众对公益慈善的需求越来越多、期望也越来越高,佛教界在开展慈善救助等过程中,也在不断摸索适应时代的新模式,大致可归纳为:

    With the rapid development of modern times, society and the public have more and more need for charity, and their expectation is also increasingly high. Therefore, during the process of carrying out charity and rescue, the Buddhist circle is exploring new models that would be suitable to the new era. Roughly these models can be induced as follows:

    1、心灵慈善

    i. Charitable Heart

    慈善是行更是心。就慈善行为本身来说,被救济者急需的是财物,而对慈善者真正起作用的是慈善心。慈善文化并不是慈善家所捐助的财富本身,而是在这些捐助行为背后所隐藏的那份充满慈爱的心。怀有慈善心的人,即使贫穷,也能多少捐助一点,或者使用体力帮助,或者给予言语安慰,都有助于困苦中的人。至于对立、冲突、战争等,更非仅仅财物所能解决,需要的是发自慈善心的调解,慈善心的感染与启发。

    It is true that charity is embodied in action, but more importantly in the mind. As to the charity action itself, what the recipients urgently need is material and money, but for the donators, what they attain is the mind of charity. The charity culture doesn’t mean the money or supplies donated by the philanthropist, but the heart full of compassion and mercy behind the donator’s actions. A person bearing the heart of compassion, even if he is poor, can still help the people of hardship with a little donation, or a little labor, or the comfort of words. As to confrontation, conflict and even war, material things cannot be solved at all—what is needed is the reconcilement generated from a compassionate heart.

    作为践行慈善的佛教徒来讲应有更高的愿景,首先应了解自他困苦、国家危难、世界危机等,进而发心、发愿,理解共业关系、因果道理、慈善利益等,以愿导行。如宋朝元照律师《佛说阿弥陀经义疏闻持记》说:“菩萨修行以愿为本,若无愿力,万行徒施,所以经中劝令发愿。”(卷中)愿心策发以后,不论大小强弱,当随力付诸行动,在行动中滋养愿心,愿行相扶,辗转增上,方能成就广大的社会福祉和殊胜的自他利益。

    Buddhists who put charity into practice should have a higher vision. At first we should know the hardship of self and others, the danger of the nation and the crisis of the world. Then, we should make vows, understanding the relationship of collective karma, the law of cause and effect, and the benefit of charity, etc. and then guide action with our vows. Just as Vinaya Master Yuanzhao in Song Dynasty said in Notes on Listening to the Elaboration on the Buddha Expounding Amitabha Sutra, “Vow is the foundation of Bodhisattvas’ practice. Without the power of vows, all deeds would result in vanity. Therefore, the Sutra persuaded us to make vows.” (Vol. 2 of three volumes) After initiating making the vow, no matter how strong or weak we are, we should try hard to put that vow into action. Meanwhile, in the action we should nurture our vow. By this mutual supplement of vows and action to each other, both would be improved. And only in this way can the social welfare and extraordinary benefit of self and others can be attained.

    2、人人慈善

    ii. Everybody can be charitable.

    参与并从事慈善事业并不是腰缠万贯的企业家的特权,而是每个人都享有的权利。事实上,不可能人人都是亿万富豪或百万富翁,但人人都可以拥有一颗善良真诚的心。这是慈善文化的源头活水,也是终极归趣。通过慈善文化的宣导、慈善捐助的鼓励和慈善行为的实践,使得慈善之人越来越多,慈善之心越来越广,乃至人人深心慈善,对构建和善社会大有裨益。比如:成立于2008年的“仁爱心栈”奉送爱心粥项目,在北京、上海、广州、深圳、天津、秦皇岛、雅安等城市开设了十几个心栈,倡导身边慈善,结合现代都市人的生活特点,每天清晨熬制爱心粥,伴随着温暖的问候免费奉送给过往行人、旅客、都市忙人,以此启发更多人的善心。很多人喝过一两次爱心粥后,就成为奉送爱心粥的志愿者。一年365天志愿者日日坚持,六年来,参与该项目的志愿者超过10万人次;受益人数将近200万,爱心——就在这一杯小小的“爱心粥”中传递开来、温暖人间。

    To participate and engage in charity cause is not the privilege of the wealthy entrepreneurs, but the right that everybody can enjoy. It is impossible for everyone to be a billionaire or millionaire, but each person can have a heart of sincerity and kindness. This is the original source of charity culture, and ultimate destination as well. It would be of great help for building a harmonious society if more people become charitable, with more people publicizing charity culture, and encouraging charitable donations which then produce charitable actions. For example, the project of love porridge donation by “Ren Ai Heart Stand” initiated in 2008, set up more than 10 Heart Stands in the cities of Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Tianjin, Qinhuangdao, Yaan, and propagated the charity that is close to everyone. Considering the living style of modern people, every morning the volunteers of the Heart Stands cook porridge and donate it to the pedestrians, travelers and busy citizens. This inspires kindness in the hearts of more people. Many people became volunteers of porridge donation after eating the loving porridge once or twice. The volunteers continued this activity every day for six years. More than 100,000 volunteers participated in the project, and the recipients who enjoyed the porridge numbered almost 2 million. A heart of love is transmitted and spread in a small cup of loving porridge, which brings warmth to the world. 

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